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Australian Ride Sharing Wiki and Info Page

Discussion in 'Australia' started by g00r, Jan 14, 2016.

  1. MyRedUber

    MyRedUber Well-Known Member

    I put the question of recording video and audio to the NRMA (in NSW) free legal advice service. Here's their response:

    "Thank you for your inquiry.
    Unfortunately, unless the right to record a passenger is clearly expressed in the terms and conditions of use of UBER (which it does not appear that it is) then you will need to have certain terms noted in your vehicle which, when the passenger enters your vehicle, they agree to either by signing the terms or accepting them "impliedly". This might mean that a small sign is placed in various parts of the vehicle which advises the passenger they are being recorded. If they do not object, this may be considered an implied acceptance of your recording of them.
    However, i would suggest that you email Uber and ask their team whether or not they have any specific policy and / or suggestions on this issue!"

    I had previously contacted Uber and their reply was along the lines, we don't have a policy, you should comply with any relevant laws, passengers may not like being recorded and may rate you lower.
  2. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Tax and Record Keeping

    The following is a basic introductory guide only.


    The Tax Office (ATO) requires that as a ride sharing (ATO calls it ride sourcing) driver you -
    1. Must register and obtain an ABN.
    2. Calculate and pay GST on a quarterly basis via BAS (Business Activity Statement). You can claim GST credits. GST credits relate to the GST paid on your purchases and are listed on your purchase invoices.
    3. Declare your ride sourcing income annually (as well as any other income).

    Quarter Due dates
    1 - July, August and September - lodge by 28 October
    2 - October, November and December - lodge by 28 February
    3 - January, February and March - lodge by 28 April
    4 - April, May and June - lodge by 28 July

    GST is payable on the first $1 you earn and calculated on the TOTAL fare, not the amount paid to the driver. The ATO requirement to only pay GST if you earn more than $74,000 does NOT apply to ride sharing.

    You must remit 1/11th or 9.09% of the total fare? If the total fare is $10.00, you remit $0.91, not $1.00 (before the commission)

    ATO do see your bank statements and can impose fines.

    See ATO and Uber links below.

    Record Keeping
    You need to keep a record of all income and expenses while ride sharing so you can pay your quarterly GST and submit your annual tax return.

    1. Keep receipts for all expenses including petrol, car services, rego, insurances, mobile phone, and purchases of water, mints, log books, driver authorities etc.

    2. Track car usage. Purchase a Vehicle Log Book from a newsagent or Officeworks to record kilometres traveled (business/private) or obtain equivalent program. See ATO link


    3. Print out the Uber statements that show the dates and income earned etc. Uber now supply weekly via email or monthly via web dashboard.

    4. Create a record using the above data, either using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet or a suitable program and update.

    5. On a quarterly basis calculate your GST (and GST credits) and submit your BAS to the tax office (ATO).

    6. On an annual basis calculate and submit your financial tax return.

    For GST obligations, the same applies to all taxis and almost all hire cars, the only exception being those that are used exclusively for prebooked work such as funerals. Some UberX drivers feel that they're being unfairly targetted, but it applies to all similar services.

    Each person's financial situation is different. For some, ride sharing is the only income while for others the income is supplemental.

    Forum members give advice that maybe illegal, invalid, conflicting. Any comments you find in this forum are NOT legally recognised.
    See a tax agent to ensure you are compliant and to obtain the best professional advice.

    Different rules may apply if you are ONLY registered for UberEats.
    Last edited: Sep 5, 2016
    Modern-Day-Slavery likes this.
  3. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Car Insurance & Accidents

    Car Insurance
    As a ride sharing driver you are required to have comprehensive car insurance that specifically covers ride sharing.
    Make sure you have the correct insurance that applies in your State.
    Uber only has a form of 3rd party insurance that will cover your pax.

    Note: the following is general basic information only and not legal advice. References relate to NSW and may differ in other States.

    Car accidents
    If you are in a car accident there are things to do.

    1. Check that no one is injured. Put on your hazard lights. Contact police and ambulance where appropriate.

    2. Exchange license details (including name, address, license number) and phone number.

    3. Record car details including make, model, rego, insurance, time/date and location of accident. Take photos.

    4. If no one is injured, or there is no major traffic incident, the police will not normally attend.

    5. If you were rear ended, in general, the other car driver will be 'at fault'.

    6. Depending on the incident you can report the accident via the NSW Police Assistance Line (131 444).

    7. Contact your insurance company first if your car needs to be towed. Towing maybe covered in your policy.

    Forum comments-
    You will have an excess. Even minor accidents can exceed your excess.

    Get quotes and negotiate with the other diver if less than your excess.

    Notifying your insurance company will land you a "not at fault claim" marked on your account but still a claim in the eyes of an Insurance company. When you apply for insurance, the question is have you had any claims in the last 3-5 years etc. You would have to answer YES. There is a way around this, the 'at fault' driver can lodge the claim for repairs to your car entirely through his insurance only.

    Notifying Uber will result in deactivation of your driver account until re-inspection of car. They'll likely bump you up to 25% commission also, as a mistake.
    Uber advises that you report the accident to them. Your decision.

    See Uber link

    See NSW links
    http://www.insurancecouncil.com.au/assets/media_release/2014/october2014/141014 NSW consumer alert - accident reporting rules are changing but insurers should be notified.pdf

    See Insurance links
  4. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Tax Invoices

    A passenger may ask for a Tax Invoice.
    See ATO extract below.

    When you make a taxable sale of more than $82.50 (including GST), your GST-registered customers need a tax invoice from you to be able to claim a credit for the GST in the purchase price.

    If a customer asks you for a tax invoice, you must provide one within 28 days of their request.

    Requirements of tax invoices

      • that the document is intended to be a tax invoice
      • the seller's identity
      • the seller's Australian business number (ABN)
      • the date the invoice was issued
      • a brief description of the items sold, including the quantity (if applicable) and the price
      • the GST amount (if any) payable – this can be shown separately or, if the GST amount is exactly one-eleventh of the total price, as a statement such as 'Total price includes GST'
      • the extent to which each sale on the invoice is a taxable sale (that is, the extent to which each sale includes GST)
    Forum comments
    If the total payment by the customer, total fare plus any surge plus any extras plus any tolls, equals more than $82.50, the driver must give the customer a Tax Invoice if the customer requests one.
    The driver is responsible for giving their customer a Tax Invoice, not Uber.
    Tax Invoice books, that comply with the ATO requirement, can be bought from newsagents and Officeworks stores.

    See links for more details.
    Last edited: Dec 3, 2016
    Modern-Day-Slavery likes this.
  5. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Driver Deactivation Policy

    Uber deactivates drivers for a number of reasons based upon their community guidelines. Below is a summary from the Uber web site.

    Low Star Ratings
    Your rating is based on an average of the number of post-trip stars riders gave you (from 1 to 5 stars) from your last 500 rated trips, or from the total number of rated trips you've taken if less than 500.
    There is a minimum average rating in your city.
    If your average rating is below the city minimum after multiple notifications, your Uber partner account will be deactivated.

    High Cancellation Rate
    A driver cancellation is when a driver accepts a trip request and then cancels the trip.
    Each city has a maximum cancellation rate. You may receive notifications if your cancellation rate is higher than the city maximum, after which you may not be able to go online with the Uber partner app for a short period of time. If your cancellation rate continues to exceed the maximum limit, your Uber partner account may be deactivated after multiple notifications.
    NOTE: Not accepting a trip does NOT lead to deactivation.

    Drug or Alcohol Use
    Uber does not tolerate the use of drugs or alcohol by drivers while using the platform.
    Uber may also deactivate the account of a driver who receives several unconfirmed complaints of drug or alcohol use.

    Unsafe Driving
    Riders expect drivers using the Uber app to drive safely at all times.
    Uber may deactivate the account of a driver who receives multiple complaints or a single serious complaint of poor, unsafe or distracted driving while using the Uber app. For example: driving at an unsafe speed; using a mobile phone without a mount; and failure to stop when required, such as at stop signs.

    See Uber link for more details.

    Member comments -
    Cancellations include where a passenger is a no-show and also when you ACRO (Accept, Cancel, Reason, Other)
    Not accepting a trip does NOT lead to deactivation.
    Uber can deactivate just based upon a 'serious' pax complaint.
    If you are on a lower commission rate and get deactivated, and then get reactivated, expect to be placed on the latest commission rate.

  6. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Uber Trip Swap

    (this feature may not be available in every city)

    As an Uber driver while you are on your way to pick up a rider, sometimes a new rider may be even closer. If another Uber driver comes available closer to your current pick up, Uber WILL AUTOMATICALLY SWAP the trip and it will let you know via Uber Partner App. “This will lower ETAs for both Uber Drivers and riders”. Uber claims, they won’t swap your trip if you are already near your destination or if the new trip has a LOWER surge.

    Member comments:
    As an Uber X driver, we choose our riders based on few factors.Destination to Pick up; Traffic in the area; Rider’s rating.
    If Uber does the swap automatically, it means you may end up with someone with a very low rating in your car.
  7. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Uber Pre-Bookings

    Uber has introduced a scheduling feature to allow passengers to pre-book.

    Now users can tap “Schedule a Ride” and set their pick-up time, location and destination from 15 minutes to 30 days in advance.
    This feature is only available in selected areas of Sydney, Perth, Melbourne and Brisbane.
    Users can cancel their pre-booked ride at any time. Uber will also send two reminders ahead of pick-up (24 hours and 30 minutes before).

    Rides can be scheduled in the eastern suburbs and inner west of Sydney.

    Rides can be scheduled in Merthyr, New Farm, Newstead and Teneriffe.

    Rides can be scheduled in the CBD and inner suburbs.

    Rides can be scheduled in the CBD, inner suburbs and Fremantle.


    See links

    Forum comments:
    Icon will only be displayed while in the nominated areas.
    Pax prebooked UberX but was for 3 pax plus 5 large suitcases going to airport in my small car!!! Maybe should have booked UberXL or similar.
    Last edited: Sep 18, 2016
    Ness likes this.
  8. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator


    GoCatch is an Australian based company. It started in 2011 as just a taxi app. In February 2016 it expanded into ride sharing, in Sydney, within the same one app.

    1. GoCatch is similar to Uber and cashless
    2. Does not have surging
    3. Has peak and off peak rates only
    4. Currently charges 15% driver commission
    5. Claims to pay their GST obligation to ATO on the commission. You still need to pay the GST to ATO on the balance
    6. Currently cheaper off peak rates than Uber
    7. Passengers can earn Qantas frequent flyer points
    8. Get paid daily
    9. Have free presentations and staff via shop fronts
    10. Passenger and driver rating is thumbs up or thumbs down
    11. You can book a Rideshare or taxi via same app
    12. Expanded into Brisbane QLD
    13. Now includes London cabs

    Check web sites

    Forum comments:
    Significantly smaller than Uber.
    In Sydney, coverage is mainly CBD and Eastern Suburbs.
    Driver app needs to be on front screen.
    Passenger and driver actual phone numbers are not hidden (in Uber they are hidden).
    Poor web dashboard.
    No monthly or annual statements for tax purposes.
    Not possible to easily reconcile earnings and payments.
    Last edited: Dec 29, 2016
  9. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator


    Not yet in Australia

    This following contains extracts from Uber websites.

    With UberPool, you share a ride—and split the cost—with another person who just happens to be requesting a ride along a similar route. When we find a match, we notify you of your co-rider’s first name.

    Request uberPOOL
    Select uberPOOL at the bottom of your screen. Once you set your pickup location and destination, you’ll see a guaranteed fare in the app.

    Share your ride
    We match you with riders heading in the same direction. There’s a maximum of 2 riders per pickup, up to 4 co-riders total.

    Get the guaranteed fare
    Hop out when you reach your destination and we’ll automatically charge the guaranteed fare to the credit card you have on file.

    Each uberPOOL rider can bring only one additional passenger along.

    Unmatched rides are up to 20% less than standard UberX fares.
    • Riders know that they are requesting an uberPOOL ride and will expect to share their ride!
    • It is important to follow the directions provided by the app during uberPOOL rides.
    • Riders may not change their pickup or drop off location once they request an uberPOOL.
    • Surge pricing applies to UberPool
    • Wait time is 2 minutes
    • Rider will be charged if cancelling after 5 minutes

    Member comments:
    You’re dropped off at your house which is in the same neighbourhood as the other rider. Congratulations: a weirdo now knows where you live.

    Expect delays as you pick up another uberPOOL rider.

    If you don't get a second match you only get paid pool rates. Complain to Uber that you deserve UberX rate.

    The rider gets a cheaper flat fare..... You the driver get a reduced Pool Rate based on time and milage.
    Last edited: Dec 29, 2016
  10. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Current Pricing for UberX

    Fare: $2.20
    Per Minute: $0.40
    Per Kilometre: $1.00
    Minimum Fare: $5.00
    Cancellation Fee: $10.00

    Fare: $2.00
    Per Minute: $0.35
    Per Kilometre: $1.00
    Minimum Fare: $6.00
    Cancellation Fee: $6.00

    Fare: $2.35
    Per Minute: $0.45
    Per Kilometre: $1.35
    Minimum Fare: $6.00
    Cancellation Fee: $10.00

    Fare: $2.40
    Per Minute: $0.40
    Per Kilometre: $1.20
    Minimum Fare: $6.00
    Cancellation Fee: $10.00

    Fare: $2.00
    Per Minute: $0.32
    Per Kilometre: $1.00
    Minimum Fare: $6.00
    Cancellation Fee: $10.00

    Fare: $2.00
    Per Minute: $0.32
    Per Kilometer: $1.00
    Minimum Fare: $5.00
    Cancellation Fee: $8.00

    Fare: $2.50
    Per Minute: $0.40
    Per Kilometre: $1.45
    Minimum Fare: $8.00
    Cancellation Fee: $10.00

    Note: non capital city rates vary
    Last edited: Dec 9, 2016
    Ness likes this.
  11. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Service Animals

    The following 'Can my pet ride too?' information is listed in the Uber passenger app.

    In accordance with local and federal laws in your area, service animals are permitted to accompany riders at all times.
    If you’re planning to ride with a non-service pet, it’s good practice to contact the driver who accepts your ride request. Use your app to send a text message or call to let the driver know you'd like to bring a pet.
    Please help drivers keep vehicles clean for all riders by bringing a crate or blanket to reduce the risk of damage or mess.

    And this through the driver app to the Uber web site.
    If you are unsure whether a rider’s animal is a service animal, simply ask them politely. If they answer yes, you are legally required to provide transportation services to them. You can ask the rider for evidence that the animal is an assistance animal or the animal is trained to meet standards of hygiene and behaviour that are appropriate for an animal in a public place.

    Extract from Human Rights Commission
    animals and Disability Discrimination Act.
    Variation among states and territories regarding accreditation and regulation of assistance animals will continue to present a range of issues for people with disability who use assistance animals to access the community. Examples of the situation in each jurisdiction is set out below.
    • Victoria – an Assistance Animal Pass is required and issued by Public Transport Victoria permitting assistance animals to travel on public transport. The pass is valid for 3 years.
    • Western Australia – The Public Transport Authority doesn’t require permits for assistance animals to travel on public transport. There is local government legislation providing for animals to have an ID card and a dog coat/harness.
    • Queensland – A Handler’s Identity Card is valid for 5 years allowing travel on public transport. Also, Translink (South East Queensland Transport Authority) issues an Animal Pass provided the dog meets certain standards of behaviour in public.
    • South Australia – The Dog and Cat Management Board issues a Disability Dog Pass that is valid indefinitely.
    • New South Wales – An Assistance Animal Permit is required for access to public transport, however Guide dogs and Hearing dogs do not require a permit. The permit must be renewed annually.
    • Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory and Tasmania – no system of accreditation exists and no specific passes issued.
    Last edited: Sep 22, 2016
    HotSniper likes this.
  12. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Car 'Accessories'

    Things you might want to consider having in your car (besides passengers). Some are tax deductible.

    Car phone holder.
    Backup phone charger
    Sickness bags (from chemist)
    Wet wipes (clean up)
    Tissues (clean up tears/runny nose)
    Air freshener (some people/food smells)
    Water (reduce driver dehydration)
    Mints (for my breath)
    Torch to check street numbers and checking left over belongings and spilt messes at night.
    Tax invoice book (Tax invoice is an ATO requirement, if requested by pax)
    Phone holder (free from Uber office)
    Aux cable (free from Uber office)
    Petrol price app (eg FuelCheck)
    Toilet app (eg Toilet Finder) or this link
    - also consider shopping centres, pubs, parks, fast food outlets, servos, 24 hour gyms (require membership)

    Battery vacuum cleaner (dirt/beach sand)
    Bluetooth ear piece to help with Nav and pax can't hear it. Less cords hanging around.
    Brush and tray (cleanup)
    Puke response clean up kit
    Dash cam (recording)
    Deodorant (haha some people smell)
    Folding umbrella (it does rain)
    Large towel (rain/wet pax/assistance animal)
    Rubber mats (protect carpet)
    Last edited: Oct 4, 2016
    HotSniper likes this.
  13. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Uber Safe Driving Report

    From the Uber app-

    Drive safer and smarter with driving stats

    Using GPS data, we are able to show you information about your braking and acceleration habits. We are calculating this information regularly to help you because riders tend to rate higher when there is minimal harsh braking and acceleration. Paying more attention to your driving style can lead to higher ratings and help you save money on gas.

    What is harsh braking?
    Harsh braking is the extreme usage of or sudden slamming of brakes. We acknowledge that in some situations this is the safest behavior to prevent an accident; however, consistent harsh braking can wear out your brakes faster than normal, make your riders uncomfortable, and potentially lead to an accident. Your daily driving stats will tell you how many of your total brakes were performed smoothly. If you notice that this number is low, you can avoid harsh braking by leaving more space in front of your car in traffic, looking ahead to anticipate stops, and gradually slowing down at yellow lights. In general, avoiding distraction while driving is important

    What is harsh acceleration?
    Harsh acceleration occurs when you accelerate from a stop too quickly. Consistent harsh acceleration can burn through your gas more quickly and provide an unpleasant experience for riders. Your daily driving stats will tell you how many of your total accelerations were performed smoothly. If you notice that this number is low, you can avoid harsh acceleration by gradually accelerating after a green light and avoiding harsh left turns against oncoming traffic.

    Will this affect my account standing?
    No, we simply want to help you understand your driving style so you can save money and continue providing excellent, comfortable service.

    From Uber Support
    For safety reasons, we collect GPS, accelerometer, and gyroscope information while you’re online with the partner app.

    We use this data to gather information about driving events like braking, acceleration, and mobile device movement. We can then share insights with you about your driving habits and help with any support issues.

    We currently do not allow driver-partners to opt out of data collection.In the interest of improving safety for everyone using the Uber platform, data is gathered for all online drivers..
    Last edited: Sep 26, 2016
    HotSniper likes this.
  14. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    What can you claim to ATO

    Firstly you must register an ABN and pay GST via quarterly BAS.
    You can use a logbook to track business vs private usage. Maintain logbook for 12 weeks to determine (or use ATO cents per km method).

    Most business purchases maybe 100% claimable. Business expenses can be claimed but only on the % for business usage.
    (Eg if business usage is 90% you can only claim 90% of that expense)

    The following purchases may be 100% claimable.
    1. In car (Eg camera, seat covers, dash mounts, cables etc).
    2. Tolls. Only claim 100% of the tolls while on/working/doing uber.
    3. Logbook (physical or app).
    4. Spotify/Pandora Subscriptions.
    5. Carwashes/Cleaning Materials.
    6. Accountant - If you use one.
    7. ABN, Criminal Record Check, Licensing Fees, etc
    8. Water/Mints - If you are one of those people.
    9. Uber Service Fee/commission.

    The following may be claimed but only the % for business use.
    1. Fuel.
    2. Car services.
    3. Maintenance (eg Tyres, repairs).
    4. Insurance, Rego, CTP.
    5. Roadside assistance.
    6. Car leasing.

    A smaller % of the following may be claimable.
    1. Mobile Phone/plan.
    2. Computer (If you use for taxes, calculations, etc).
    3. Home internet.

    Some items have GST while others (eg water) are GST free.
    You can claim GST tax credits in your BAS
    (Eg the GST from your petrol purchases).

    You need to declare your income/earnings and list your expenses in your annual return.
    Keep all receipts.
    Open a seperate bank account to track to make it easier to track.
    ATO can see your bank accounts.

    The above is only a guide.
    Some people are PAYG as well as Uber drivers.
    Read the ATO web pages.
    Get professional tax accountant advice.
    See earlier threads relating to GST and ATO.
    See also
    Last edited: Oct 5, 2016
  15. LevelX

    LevelX Well-Known Member

    Needs to be cleared up a bit, you can only claim 100% of the tolls while on/working/doing uber.

    You can't claim your 'personal' toll usage while not doing uber.
    Grand likes this.
  16. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Good pickup, have edited. Feedback appreciated. Please keep the update/corrections coming.
    Thanks so much:):)
    HotSniper and LevelX like this.
  17. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Uber and TripGo

    From Uber web site dated 26 Sept 2016.

    TripGo and Uber have created a seamless way for people traditionally underserved by transport to plan, book and track door-to-door multimodal trips.

    In an Australian first, TripGo users will be given access to real time ridesharing and public transport data to allow Aussies to request and synchronize Uber rides with public transport connections, effectively bridging the first/last mile gap.

    For example, TripGo users can request an Uber ride to their local train, bus or tram station and use real time data within the app to help streamline their connection with the next departing public transport service.

    See details in Uber link
    HotSniper likes this.
  18. LevelX

    LevelX Well-Known Member

    What fresh hell is this Uber has released!? Great, just what uber drivers need. More useless 'train station' trips. Thanks Uber for increase minimum fare trips and making drivers waste even MORE time and money.

    Train station drop offs/pickups are already one of the worst non money making trips you can get. So again shows Uber has no idea about looking after 'partners'.
    HotSniper and Grand like this.
  19. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Lost Items

    Below is Uber's view of handling items lost by passengers while in your car.

    "Sorry to hear you left something behind.

    Visit riders.uber.com/lost to retrieve a phone number to contact your driver and arrange the return of your item.

    If you have trouble reaching your driver after some time, let us know details below and we'll work to connect you.

    The best way to retrieve an item you may have left in a vehicle is to call the driver. Here’s how:

    1. Scroll down and enter the phone number you would like to be contacted at. Tap submit.

    If you lost your personal phone, enter a friend’s phone number instead.

    2. Your phone will ring and connect you directly with your driver’s mobile number.

    If your driver picks up and confirms that your item has been found, coordinate a mutually convenient time and place to meet for its return to you.

    If your driver doesn’t pick up, leave a detailed voicemail describing your item and the best way to contact you.

    Please be considerate that your driver’s personal schedule will be affected by taking time out to return your item to you.

    Drivers are independent contractors. Neither Uber nor drivers are responsible for the items left in a vehicle after a trip ends. We’re here to help, but cannot guarantee that a driver has your item or can immediately deliver it to you


    Forum comments:
    Uber expects drivers to return items at no cost to pax.
    Pax expects items returned at no cost to them.
    If valuable item it could be dropped off at Uber office or police station and inform pax.
    Coordinate a suitable time/place to collect.
    Some phones (iPhone) have find me feature which pax can use to track phone to ...
    Get pax to book an uber to collect from you and returned to them.
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2017
    ZacHudson777 likes this.
  20. Grand

    Grand Moderator Moderator

    Transporting children.

    National child restraint laws

    • Children up to the age of six months must be secured in an approved rearward facing restraint
    • Children aged from six months old but under four years old must be secured in either a rear or forward facing approved child restraint with an inbuilt harness
    • Children under four years old cannot travel in the front seat of a vehicle with two or more rows
    • Children aged from four years old but under seven years old must be secured in a forward facing approved child restraint with an inbuilt harness or an approved booster seat
    • Children aged from four years old but under seven years old cannot travel in the front seat of a vehicle with two or more rows, unless all other back seats are occupied by children younger than seven years in an approved child restraint or booster seat
    • Children aged from seven years old but under 16 years old who are too small to be restrained by a seatbelt properly adjusted and fastened are strongly recommended to use an approved booster seat
    • Children in booster seats must be restrained by a suitable lap and sash type approved seatbelt that is properly adjusted and fastened, or by a suitable approved child safety harness that is properly adjusted and fastened.
    See links

    See also Forum blog

    Forum comments
    Check your specific State requirements
    You are NOT expected to supply capsules or booster seats. That is the responsibility of passengers.

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